Sugar provides what is arguably the most popular flavor, but it will also ruin a dish if used in excess. While most people can tolerate dishes that are just a little too sweet, using too much sugar makes some dishes cloying to the point of being unpalatable. Too much sugar is not just bad for the taste of food, it is bad for your health as well. If you have added a cup of sugar when you meant to add only a ½ cup, one of the solutions below may help.
You can restore flavor balance in a dish by diluting the sweetness and increasing the ratio of other ingredients. Consider making a batch of the dish with no sugar and adding it to the one with too much. While this is a more expensive proposition that will also leave you with more leftovers, it can help. Note that if you added twice the amount of sugar than you should have, you will need to double your dish; if you added three times the sugar, you will need to triple it.
In some cases, all that you will need to dilute a dish is one or two of the main ingredients along with the spices. For example, a spaghetti sauce with too much sugar may be improved with the addition of some more crushed tomatoes. A chili that is too sweet may need some more beans or ground beef.
If you are making a savory dish, a tart ingredient can help to balance the extra sweetness. A spaghetti sauce, chili, or salsa can be rescued from excessive sugar with the addition of souring agents like citrus juice, vinegar, or red wine. For other dishes, additions like mustard (prepared or dry) or tamarind paste may be more appropriate.
In the case of a spaghetti sauce, wine or vinegar are the best options. Add and simmer until the sauce is reduced to the desired consistency. For a salsa or chili, lime or lemon juice will be your best bet.
Increase the salt
A small amount of salt can make a difference in a dish with too much sugar. The increased saltiness can make help to mask and distract from the excessive sweetness. Note that like too much sugar, too much salt can cause health issues. You should use this method with dishes that have only a little bit too much sugar.
Using a salty ingredient like soy sauce or miso can negate the extra sugar while giving the dish a more nuanced flavor profile.
Add dairy products
In savory dishes where cheese is appropriate, the richness and sharpness of certain cheeses can help to mask the taste of too much sugar. For example, a spaghetti that is too sweet may benefit from the addition of Pecorino Romano or a similar flavorful Italian cheese. For a chili, you can add sour cream or even yogurt. Many overly sweet desserts may be made less cloying if you add unsweetened whipped cream to them.
Make it spicy
The kick from chili peppers can pair well with the sweetness from too much sugar. A pinch or two of crushed pepper flakes works well in spaghetti sauce and extra chili powder or cayenne pepper can make your chili even more flavorful. Even an extra sugary dessert can be improved with spice; consider adding extra cloves and cinnamon to a too-sweet pie filling.